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Neki dubrovački brodovi nastradali u Crnom moru PDF Ispis E-mail
Morski magazin - Povijest pomorstva
Autor Đivo Bašić   
Srijeda, 23 Prosinac 2009 00:31

Nedavno smo saznali da je u Crnom moru pronađen brod (duljine oko 50 m), ali ga je teže identificirati jer je na dubini od 100-120 m, pa je dr. Mariana Krasteva, ravnateljica Pomorskog muzeja iz Varne u Bugarskoj, zatražila podatke koji se tiču dubrovačkih brodova koji su pohodili, te nesretnom eventualnošću nastradali u Crnom moru (naročito tijekom krimskog rata 1853.-1856.).

Vinko Ivančević, Dubrovački konzulat u Odesi, Naše more, god. III, br. 5-6, Dubrovnik, 1956, str. 345, kaže: "Konzul [Federico/Federik] Chirico 16. IV. 1805. piše vladi u Dubrovnik da je kroz Bospor prošlo za Odesu 46 dubrovačkih brodova, da su dva u kanalu, a tri pripravna otputovati iz Buyukdera, navodeći za sve te brodove imena njihovih kapetana".

Vinko Ivančević, Pomorsko-trgovinske veze starog Dubrovnika s rusko-crnomorskim lukama, Pomorski zbornik, 5, Zadar, 1967, str. 514-516, 526, veli: "[Dubrovačka] Vlada također izvješćuje 24. VIII. [1802.] sve konzule da je dobila ovlaštenje za slobodnu plovidbu dubrovačkih brodova u Crno more, pa dopušta brodovima da mogu poduzimati ta putovanja.

...Prva vijest na koju nailazimo o ulasku dubrovačkih brodova u Crno more odnosi se, nažalost, na brodolom pulake Due fratelli alleati u prosincu 1802, kojom se prigodom utopio njezin zapovjednik kap. Gašpar Lovro Drašković. Brodsku opremu su spašavali Dubrovčani Petar Radmili, kap. Josip Gleđ i nekoliko mornara greci. Opremu su prodali na javnoj dražbi u Carigradu.

...Dana 31. I. 1803. nastradao je u Crnom moru dubrovački brigantin La Constanza, kojem je zapovjednik tada bio kap. Kristofor Gleđ. Nešto brodske opreme tog nastradalog brigantina spasio je njegov vođa palube Petar Radmili i doveo je u Carigrad. Iste godine strada tamo i brigantin L'angello Raffaello, kojom prilikom je kap. Ivan Žile također izgubio život.

...Zimi 1804. više od 30 brodova raznih nacija nastradalo je od nevremena u Crnom moru. Dubrovački brodovi su svi sretno stigli u Carigrad.

...U rujnu [1806. konzul u Carigradu] Chirico piše vladi u Dubrovnik da su se bez iznimke svi dubrovački brodovi sretno vratili iz Crnog mora, ali prazni.

Ilija Mitić, Konzulat Dubrovačke Republike u Carigradu, Pomorski zbornik, 6, Zadar, 1968, str. 468, kaže: "Dok je u IV. mjesecu 1805. godine uplovilo u Crno more 16, dotle je već u VI. mjesecu iste godine uplovilo 48 dubrovačkih brodova".

Vinko Ivančević, Dubrovački brodovi u Carigradu nakon pada Republike, Naše more, god. XX, br. 4-5, Dubrovnik, 1973, str. 186, dodaje: "Godine 1804. već je 12 brodova prošlo Bosporom ploveći u Crno more. Iduće godine 1805. imamo pravu najezdu dubrovačkih brodova koji prolaze Bosporom da bi u ruskim lukama krcali žito. Tako kroz Bospor u pravcu rusko-crnomorskih luka prolazi 61 dubrovački brod. Osim u Odessi oni krcaju žito u Sevastopolju i Taganrogu".

Stjepan Vekarić, Naši jedrenjaci, Pomorska biblioteka 1, Književni krug, Split, 1997, str. 203, 206, 240, 252-253, 262, 297, donosi podatke: "God. 1803. krenulo je iz Crnog mora 815 jedrenjaka punih žita, od toga 18 pod dubrovačkom zastavom. ...God. 1885. ukrcao je Bjelovučićev bark 'Mati Ane' u Varni teret žita za Englesku. U pismu brodovlasnicima kapetan kaže da je prihvatio tu 'bijednu' vozarinu samo da 'iziđe iz zloglasnog Crnog mora koje nije više za jedrenjake'.

...1862. god. Ruska nava 'Otac Luka', kap. Vice Marinković. Oluja koju su pretrpjeli 15. listopada u 9 sati uvečer, 50 M izvan Bugasa (Crno more).

...Seriju brodoloma otvorio je 1856. godine brigantin 'Kazimir Flori', vlasništvo Stjepana Florija, pod zapovjedništvom kap. Podića. Brod je potonuo u Crnome moru, koje je i u prvoj polovici ovoga stoljeća, a i ranije, progutalo najviše peljeških jedrenjaka.

I god. 1861. potonula je u Crnome moru s cijelom posadom nava 'Ljubimica Mimbelli' pod zapovjedništvom kap. Petra Brailija. Brod je 2. prosinca krenuo iz Kerča u Carigrad zajedno s pelješkim jedrenjakom 'Majka Mimbelli' (kap. Baldo Novak). Prema izjavama Tome Pilkovića i Nikole Kole, dvojice mornara s toga drugog broda, u visini Krima oba je jedrenjaka zahvatila neobično žestoka oluja u kojoj je bez traga nestala 'Ljubimica Mimbelli'. Drugi se jedrenjak spasio sklonivši se u Feodosiju.

...1864. god., opet u Crnome moru, [nestao je] još jedan brod obitelji Mimbelli, 'Fani Mimbelli'.

...god. 1871. brikškuna 'Sunce' (kap. i vlasnik broda Antun Šeput). Brod je otplovio iz Suline i nestao u Crnome moru.

...Također u Crnome moru, u luci Batumu, izgorio je 1889. god. pelješki bark 'Ujedinjena rodbina' (kap. Ivan Suhor).

...Obično bi [pelješki/dubrovački brodovi] polazili na put sredinom siječnja ili početkom veljače, u balastu ili s teretom kamena iz Vrnika u Carigrad, tako da u luke Crnog mora stignu nakon otapanja leda. Tijekom godine prevezli bi nekoliko tereta žita i potkraj jeseni vraćali se kući, gdje bi zimi, najčešće u nekoj pelješkoj uvali, stajali raspremljeni".

Pomorski godišnjak za godine 1941-1951, Ministarstvo pomorstva FNRJ, Beograd, 1952, str. 86, te u knjizi: Ivo Perić, Dubrovačko pomorstvo u 19. i 20. stoljeću, Građa za gospodarsku povijest Hrvatske, sv. 20, JAZU, Zagreb, 1984, str. 280, bilježi se da je brod 'Vido' (1.919 BRT; 'Jugolevant' Parobrodarsko društvo s.o.j. - Dubrovnik) 11. VI. 1940. naišao na minu u Crnom moru.

Đivo Bašić

Engleska verzija teksta:

Some of Ragusan/Dubrovnik ships misfortuned/lost in the Black Sea

Recently we are told that in the Black Sea was found the ship (length about 50 m), but it's hard to identify the wreck because of depth 100-120 m, so dr. Mariana Krasteva, Director of the Naval Museum - Varna in Bulgaria, asked for informations dealing with Ragusan/Dubrovnik ships which have frequented and by unfortunate eventuality misfortuned/wrecked in the Black Sea (especially during the Crimean War 1853-1856).
Vinko Ivančević, Dubrovački konzulat u Odesi, Naše more, Year III, No. 5-6, Dubrovnik, 1956, p. 345, said: Consul [Federico/Federik] Chirico in 16th April 1805. wrote to the government in Dubrovnik that through Bospor have passed 46 Dubrovnik ships for Odessa, two were in canal, and three were ready to go from Buyukder, mentioning for all those ships names of their captains. (p. 345).
Vinko Ivančević, Pomorsko-trgovinske veze starog Dubrovnika s rusko-crnomorskim lukama (Sea-trade connections of old Dubrovnik with the Russian ports on the Black Sea), Pomorski zbornik, Vol. 5, Zadar, 1967, (p. 511-531):
- [Ragusan/Dubrovnik] government inform 24th August [1802.] all consuls that she got permission for free shipping of Dubrovnik ships in the Black Sea, so she allows to ships that thay can take those voyages. (p. 514).
- The first information of entering Ragusan/Dubrovnik ships into the Black Sea is, unfortunately, dealing with the shipwreck of polacre [polacca] 'Due fratell alleati' in December 1802. when her commandant capt. Gašpar Lovro Drašković got drowned. Ship's equipment was rescuing by people from Dubrovnik Petar Radmili, capt. Josip Gleđ and some sailors 'greci'. Equipment was sold at public sale in Carigrad [Istanbul]. ...So there is one more information from 1802. of entering Ragusan/Dubrovnik ships in the Black Sea. In the day of 31st January 1803. in the Black Sea was disastered Dubrovnik brigantine 'La constanza' when commandant was capt. Kristofor Gleđ. Some things of ship's equipment of that particular disastered brigantine were rescued by his boatswain [nostromo] Petar Radmili and brought to Carigrad [Istanbul]. The same year there was disastered also brigantine 'L'angello Raffaello' during which capt. Ivan Žile also lost his life. (p. 515).
- In winter 1804. more than 30 ships of different nations were disastered of bad weather in the Black Sea. (p. 516).
- In September [1806. consul in Istanbul] Chirico wrote to Dubrovnik government that with no exceptions all Ragusan/Dubrovnik ships are luckily got back from the Black Sea, but empty. (p. 526).
Ilija Mitić, Konzulat Dubrovačke Republike u Carigradu (The Consulate of the Republic of Dubrovnik in Istanbul), Pomorski zbornik, Vol. 6, Zadar, 1968, p. 468:
- While in April 1805. have entered 16 Dubrovnik ships in the Black Sea, in June of the same year entered 48 Dubrovnik ships. (p. 468).
Vinko Ivančević, Dubrovački brodovi u Carigradu nakon pada Republike, Naše more, Year XX, No. 4-5, Dubrovnik, 1973, p. 186:
- In the year of 1804. already 12 ships have passed through Bospor sailing in the Black Sea. Next year 1805. we have a real invasion of Dubrovnik ships which pass the Bospor so that they can load grain/corn in Russian harbours. So [that year] through Bospor in direction of Russian harbours have passed 61 Dubrovnik ships. Besides Odessa, they loaded grain/corn in Sevastopolj and Taganrog. (p. 186).
Stjepan Vekarić, Naši jedrenjaci, Pomorska biblioteka 1, Književni krug, Split, 1997, (p. 203, 206, 240, 252-253, 262, 297):
- In 1803. went from the Black Sea 815 sailing ships full of grain/corn, 18 of that under the flag of Ragusa/Dubrovnik. (p. 203).
- In 1885. grain/corn cargo for England was loaded at Bjelovučić's bark [barque] 'Mati Ane' in Varna. In a letter to shipowners captain said that he has accepted that 'miserable' carriage/freightage only to 'get out from notorious Black Sea which is not for sailing ships'. (p. 206).
- 1862. Russian nava 'Otac Luka', capt. Vice Marinković. Storm which they endured 15th October at 9 p. m., 50 M out of Bugas (The Black Sea). (p. 240).
- Series of shipwrecks opened in 1856. brigantine 'Kazimir Flori', owned by Stjepan Flori, under the command of capt. Podić. The ship sank in the Black Sea, which also is in the first half of that century, and even earlier, swallowed the most [number of] sailing ships from Pelješac peninsula. And in 1861. in the Black Sea sunk with entire crew nava 'Ljubimica Mimbelli' under the command of capt. Petar Braili. The ship at 2nd December went from Kerč in Carigrad [Istanbul] with Pelješac sailing ship 'Majka Mimbelli' (capt. Baldo Novak). By the statements of Toma Pilković and Nikola Kola, two sailors from that other ship, in the height of Krim [Crimea] both sailing ships were caught by unusually impetuous storm in which without trace/wake vanished 'Ljubimica Mimbelli'. The other sailing ship get saved by sheltering in Feodosia. (p. 252-253).
- In 1864, again in the Black Sea, one more ship of family Mimbelli, 'Fani Mimbelli' [vanished]. (p. 253).
- 1871. brig-schooner 'Sunce' (capt. and owner of the ship Antun Šeput). The ship sailed from Sulina and vanished in the Black Sea. (p. 253).
- Also in the Black Sea, in harbour/port Batum, in 1889. have burnt out Pelješac's bark [barque] 'Ujedinjena rodbina' (capt. Ivan Suhor). (p. 262).
- [Pelješac ships/ships from Pelješac peninsula nearby Dubrovnik] usually went on sailing in the middle of January or in the beginning of February, in ballast or loaded with cargo of stones from Vrnik [islet nearby island Korčula in the Adriatic Sea] to Carigrad [Istanbul], so that they can reach harbours of the Black Sea after thawing of the ice. During the year they had transported some cargos of grain/corn and by the end of autumn they returned to home, where in winter, most often in certain cove/small bay of Pelješac [peninsula], stayed unrigged. (p. 297).
Pomorski godišnjak za godine 1941-1951, Ministarstvo pomorstva FNRJ, Beograd, 1952, p. 86:
- S/S 'Vido' (1.919 BRT; 'Jugolevant' Steamship Company from Dubrovnik) hit upon the mine and sunk in the Black Sea at 11th June 1940. (p. 86; See also the same information in: Ivo Perić, Dubrovačko pomorstvo u 19. i 20. stoljeću, Građa za gospodarsku povijest Hrvatske, vol. 20, JAZU, Zagreb, 1984, p. 280).

Translated in English from Croatian language by Đivo Bašić

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