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Pomorski muzej u staroj gradskoj jezgri Dubrovnika PDF Ispis E-mail
Morski magazin - Povijest pomorstva
Autor Đivo Bašić   
Utorak, 10 Listopad 2006 22:35

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Korijeni Pomorskog muzeja zadani su pomorskom prošlošću dubovačkog kraja i, općenito, jadranske hrvatske obale. Sami korijeni ustanovljenja sežu u 1872. kada je osnovan dubrovački "Domorodni muzej". Postojala je namjera organiziranja pomorske izložbe 1930. koja je u konačnici trebala konkretizirati "opipljivost" ustanovljenja Pomorskog muzeja, ali nije došlo do realizacije ni putem te neostvarene izložbe (elaborat), kao ni izložbe "Dubrovačko pomorstvo kroz vjekove", uspješno organizirane 1941. godine. Od tada je istina postojao "Odjel pomorstva" u posebnoj zgradi (žitnica "Rupe", danas Etnografski muzej Dubrovačkih muzeja). Akademija znanosti i umjetnosti osniva 1949. samostalni Pomorski muzej u Dubrovniku (u sklopu akademijinog Jadranskog instituta u Zagrebu), a od 1951. je pod Akademijinim I. odjelom. Od 1987./1988. Pomorski muzej postaje "odjel" Dubrovačkog muzeja, a od 23. veljače 1994. odnosno prema Statutu od 26. rujna 1995. i 10. lipnja 2002. godine Dubrovački muzej prerasta nominalno u Dubrovačke muzeje, stoga "odjeli" u muzeje, susljedno i Pomorski muzej.

Muzejska postava započimlje kartografskih pregledom pomorskih puteva u antici uz razvedenu istočnojadransku obalu. Podmorskim istraživanjima uz obalu otoka Mljeta pronađeni su ostaci potonulih trgovačkih brodova u uvali Sobra (početak IV. stoljeća) i kod rta Stoba (kraj IX. - početak X. stoljeća), što svjedoči o plovidbi južnim Jadranom od antičkih vremena. Vijesti iz X. i XI. stoljeća (Konstantin Porfirogenet, Georgios Kedrenos, Vilim Apulijski) ukazuju na rani pomorski značaj Dubrovnika. U XII. i XIII. stoljeću Dubrovnik je istaknuta srednjovjekovna komuna na Jadranu. Pomorsko-trgovačku aktivnost utvrđuje nizom ugovora od kojih su najznačajniji predočeni faksimilima (Pisa, Ancona, Molfetta, Tremoli, Omiš, Split i Šibenik). Statut grada Dubrovnika (1272.) predočen je naslovnom stranom i dijelom VII. poglavlja (o pomorstvu). U XIV. stoljeću, u smislu pomorstva, Dubrovnik je bio treći na Mediteranu (iza Genove i Venecije). Tada je evidentiran i prvi ugovor o osiguranju (1395.) u Dubrovniku. Utvrđenje i uređenje gradske luke započimlje u XV. stoljeću, kako je taj razvoj grafički i prikazan. U drugoj polovici XVI. stoljeća Dubrovačka Republika posjeduje najveću trgovačku mornaricu u svojoj povijesti. U razdoblju od 1570.-1588. godine ima 180-200 brodova od 10 do 1.100 kara, ukupne nosivosti 36.000 kara. Time se ubraja među prve u tadašnjem pomorskom svijetu, a s prekoocenskim trgovačkim jedrenjacima (pod dubrovačkom i stranom zastavom) Dubrovčani su treći na svijetu (iza Španjolske i Nizozemske). Tu spadaju izlošci-prikazi remek-djela dubrovačkog slikarstva i zlatarskog obrta: srebrna navicella (navicula) za tamjan, slika karake iz 1513. godine s predele poliptiha "Navještenje" Nikole Božidarevića (Dominikanski samostan Dubrovnik), slika galijuna oko 1550. godine (Franjevački samostan Slano), srebrne zavjetne pločice (zbirka Župne crkve na Lopudu i crkva na Dančama). Pregled upotpunjuju portreti zaslužnih pomoraca, brodovlasnika i mecena (Miho Pracat, Vice Stjepović Skočibuha), te kopije i originali značajnijih dokumenata o zaštiti dubrovačkih brodova i trgovaca (pismo francuskog kralja Henrya II. iz 1557. godine), ugovori među brodovlasnicima, teretnice broda i dr. Posebno je zanimljiv zakon o pomorskom osiguranju iz 1568. godine, dosad najstariji dokument takve vrste u svijetu. Originalne materijalne ostatke iz ovog razdoblja predstavljaju dijelovi inventara potonulog dubrovačkog broda u uvali Suđurađ na Šipanu (iz XVI. stoljeća - šestari, novac, brodska keramika), te ostaci opreme i naoružanja. Pogled na luku Dubrovnika prije potresa 1667. godine i prikaz, između ostalih, i dubrovačkih brodova u luci Ancone (1731.), govore o izgledu dubrovačkih brodova, a to je razdoblje (kraj. XVII. i početak XVIII. stoljeća) ujedno najslabije doba dubrovačkog pomorstva i osiromašenja gospodarstva. Tu su i modeli - makete galijice, karake, galijuna i šambeka (što se odnose i na prethodna razdoblja popraćena grafikonima i tabličnim podacima). Doba XVII. i XVIII. stoljeća, te početka XIX. stoljeća, zastupljeno je velikim brojem originalnih dokumenata, slika i predmeta, kao i s nešto kopija. Dio inventara i izbor predmeta iz nepoznatog potonulog broda u Koločepskom kanalu (kraj XVII. - početak XVIII. stoljeća) čini uporabna i uresna roba sjevernoeuropske i mletačke proizvodnje, te poluprerađevine namijenjene nekoj od istočnosredozemnih zemalja. Dvije skupine zavjetnih slika - kopija iz crkve Gospe od Anđela u Orebiću iz prve polovice XVII. stoljeća i crkve Gospe od Milosrđa u Dubrovniku iz XVIII. stoljeća, zorno pokazuju tipove dubrovačkih brodova. Ujedno su i lijepi primjerci pučkog zavjetnog slikarstva na istočnojadranskoj obali. Od pisane građe izložen je veći broj originala različitih isprava dubrovačkih konzulata, nautičkih karata, zdravstveni listovi i teretnice brodova, Pravilnik o nacionalnoj plovidbi iz 1794. i prvo organiziranje dubrovačkog školstva iz 1793. godine. Likovno se ističu oslikane konzularne diplome i plovidbene dozvole na pergamentu. Cjelovitost pomorskog života XVIII. stoljeća upotpunjuju nautički instrumenti, portreti kapetana, slike brodova i luka, brodska ljekarna, mornarska škrinja i dr. Doprinos dubrovačkih učenjaka pomorskoj tradiciji i praksi od XVI. do XVIII. stoljeća predočen je originalnim izdanjima i faksimilima djela Nikole Nalješkovića, Nikole Sagroevića, Stjepana Gradića, Ignjata Đurđevića i Ruđera Boškovića. Oni su svjedočanstvo o ažurnosti s europskim znanstvenim svijetom, ali i obrnuto.

Drugi dio (II. kat) stalnog postava odnosi se na pomorstvo dubrovačkog područja u XIX. i XX. stoljeću. Nakon pada Dubrovačke Republike dolazi doba francuske uprave (1808.-1814.) i nesigurnih prilika na Jadranu dubrovačka trgovačka mornarica naglo propada (svega 49 brodova (iz)vanjadranske plovidbe). Tu spadaju litografija Ivana Lizze u uniformi časnika francuske vojske, akvarel dubrovačke pulake Antoine Rouxa, vedute Dubrovnika, Cavtata, Šipana, Slanoga i Stona od Lorenza Vitelleschija (1818.) po originalu iz Državnog arhiva u Dubrovniku. Zatim od vremena II. austrijske uprave, tu su: Objava Dalmatinske vlade 1814. (uredba o pitanju pušćanog praha i olova na brodovima), okružnice, putnice, plovidbene dozvole, udžbenik aritmetike i navigacije od Bertelota - prijevod Gašpara Ivelje Ohmućevića i prijepis Ivana Luke Kazilarija (1815.), prigodne pjesme i garnitura pištolja za dvoboj (XIX. stoljeće). Zatim se nižu slike brigantina "Felice" i "Fides", mornarski koš (za spremanje robe), pulena - ukrasna figura s pramca jedrenjaka "Abraham" Pelješkog pomorskog društva, barometar, portret Nikole Antonija Grgurevića kojeg je odlikovao turski sultan Medžid za spašavanje broda (1858.), te odlikovanje viteškog reda pape Silvestra za zasluge (1867.), povelja grčkog kralja Georgiosa I. (1866.), portreti kap. Iva Pokovića, kap. Vlaha Puljezi-Ohmućevića (1812.-1883.). Slijedi parobrod "Egitto" (Giuseppe Sinibaldi, 1853.), bark "Elena" (Michele Renault, 1853.), brik "Jansko", pelig "Mladi Hercegovac", bark "Rado" i njegova brodska apoteka (oko 1865.), parobrod "Maria Antonietta" (S. C. Petrović, 1868.). Za vrijeme druge austrijske uprave (1814/15.-1918.) jedino 50-ih godina XIX. stoljeća tijekom Krimskog rata oživljava pomorski promet, što potiče uspon pomorstva i brodogradnje u ovim krajevima. Pomorstvo dubrovačkog kraja dos(t)iže vrhunac od 1865. do 1880. godine kada se osnivaju i uspješno djeluju: "Pelješko pomorsko društvo" u Orebiću (1865.-1891.) s 33 jedrenjaka duge plovidbe, dok je "Dubrovačko pomorsko društvo" (1869.-1888.) posjedovalo 13 jedrenjaka duge plovidbe. Izloženo je 18 uradaka slikara-mariniste Bazilija Ivankovića (bark "Trappano", 1887; loger "Milo", 1885; brik-škuna "Nova harnost", 1889; brik-škuna "Paolina S. I.", 1876; brik-škuna "Petka"; trabakula "Božja pomoć"; bark "Eber", 1870; bark "Peleg", 1870; brik-škuna "Zora", 1879; brik-škuna "Ida Maggiore"; bark "Cvijet", 1882; nava "Danica", 1887; bark "Ljubidrag"; bark "Vila" ("Osmi dubrovački"), 1884; parobrod "Dubrovnik", 1892; parobrod "Albanija", 1895; sudar talijanskog parobroda "Liguria" s brikom "Panselinos"; parobrod "Gruž", 1893). Zatim su izloženi barometar, termometar i hidrometar, brodski kronometar (1878.), predmeti lučko-sanitarne službe iz pomorskog lazareta u Dubrovniku (početak XIX. stoljeća), različite zdravstvene svjedodžbe, knjižice o brodskoj higijeni, priručni pisaći stroj zapovjednika jedrenjaka (prva polovica XIX. stoljeća), slika peliga "Figli S." (Vincenzo Luzzo, 1868.), portret kap. Vlaha Miloslavića (1810.-1872.), dvostruki i trostruki koloturnici. Pomorsko školstvo je unaprijeđeno osnivanjem prve javne Nautičke škole u Dubrovniku 1852. godine (uvećana fotografija profesorskog zbora 1883/1884. i dr.). Slijedi zemljovid istočnog dijela Mediterana (Dionisio Alcala Galiano, Madrid, 1806. - kopija Giovanni Orlandini, Trst, 1820.). Dubrovačko pomorsko društvo (1869.-1888.) predstavljeno je brodovima "Prvim dubrovačkim" (John Hall, 1893.), "Devetim dubrovačkim", "Desetim dubrovačkim", "Dvanaestim dubrovačkim" (zavjetna slika i display). Natpisna tabla "Governatore Moerning" potječe sa "VI. dubrovačkog". Nadalje, tu su dalekozor, pomorske knjižice, potvrde austrijske vlade, rukopisna knjiga Ivana Jakoba Kazilarija s opisom luka i otoka (1835.), Pravilnik i dionice Dubrovačkog pomorskog društva (1869.), batić za uvojnicu, "gvardamani" - štitnici za ruku, brodsko doglasalo ("portavoce"), pomorska knjižica slikara Vlaha Bukovca (Biagio Fagioni, 1855.-1922.) i, nešto dalje u parobrodarskom dijelu, njegov uradak - portret kap. Nika Ucovića (Prag, 1906.). Zatim su tu: šestar, rukom skiciran zemljovid (Atlantskog oceana) putovanja barka "Sedmi dubrovački", paralela za povlačenje usporednih pravaca kod određivanja točke broda, izvještaji, spomen-knjižice, sekstant, pulene (uresi na pramcu trabakula i jedrenjaka; njih 4), veliki model nave iz XIX. stoljeća. Jedna vitrina sadrži kalafatski (brodograditeljski) alat, zatim tu su slike navoza, bark "Jakob", slika kap. Antuna Miloslavića (1827.-1893.), "Jedanaesti dubrovački" (display), mornarske škrinje, bark "Izak" ("Isaac", kasnije "Otac Niko"; Carl Justus Fedeler (?), Bremen - Bremerhaven). Jedna vitrina sadrži kapetansku diplomu kap. Nika Puljezija i njegovo odlikovanje Viteškog križa II. reda Franje I., kompas, užarski rog, durbin, sekstant, a druga vitrina bilježnicu kap. Pava Saltarića, još jedan sekstant, Pravilnik, akcije i potvrde primitka na iste, te bilance Pelješkog pomorskog društva u Orebiću (1865.), itd. Nadalje, tu su slike nave "Favorita Mimbelli", nava "Madre Mimbelli" (Antoine Roux (sin), Marseille), pulaka "Venoge", bark "Undine" (Benedict Nemy, 1884.), portret kap. Iva Bjelovučića (1810.-1881.), bark "Stipan" (C. Suknaić) i pripadajuća brodska peć. Osamdesetih i devedesetih godina XIX. stoljeća jedrenjačko brodarstvo opada zbog sve veće moći parobroda. Godine 1880. dubrovački privrednici nabavili su putničko-teretni parobrod velike obalne plovidbe "Dubrovnik", što je značajno za upliv parobroda (slike, polumodeli i dr.). Tu su prikazi parobroda "Dubrovnik" (u gradskoj luci), zatim parobroda "Oscar", zvono broda, steznica za učvršćivanje konopa snasti broda, vreteno loga (za mjerenje brzine jedrenjaka) i dr. Vitrina u sredini izložbenog prostora (XIX. stoljeća) sadrži modele tipa bark ("Peti dubrovački"), košnu goletu, navu iz XIX. stoljeća i model jedrenjaka-parobroda na vijak. Izložbeni postav XX. stoljeća počimlje razdobljem do Prvog svjetskog rata, kad je uspješno djelovalo sedam dioničarsko-parobrodarskih društava (najznačajnije "Slobodna plovidba Ivo Račić", 1910.), koja su 1910. ukupno imala 38 parobroda. Tu su portreti kap. Iva Kastropila (1902.), Lazara Lazića (radovi V. G. Maresca), zatim slika parobroda "Epidauro" (Jose Pineda, 1900.), polumodeli parobroda "Dubrovnik" (2), "Lapad" i "Napried", nautičke sprave (brodski kronometar, kompas, sekstant, aneroid-barograf), te red vožnje do Trsta i natrag. Izloženo je i pet radova slikara Edmonda/Edouarda Adama (parobrod "Hartington", 1903; "Predsjednik Becher"; parobrod "Istok"; parobrod "Izabran", 1911; parobrod "Beatrice", 1900.), te veliki model broda "Sveti Vlaho". Nadalje slijedi slika parobroda "Orjen" (L. Bastida, 1904.), te tri uratka poznatog slikara parobroda John Henry Mohrmanna (parobrod "Bosanka", 1907; parobrod "Daksa", 1911; parobrod "Maria Immaculata", 1907.) i parobrod "Gradac" (T. Kroes). Zatim, tu su i radovi Johanna Seitsa (parobrod "Federiko Glavić", 1925; parobrod "Petka", 1932; parobrod "Lovrjenac", 1922; parobrod "Solun", 1925; torpediranje dubrovačkog broda u I. svjetskom ratu i još neki). Pored polumodela brodova "Federiko Glavić" i "Lovrjenac", tu su "Rad" i "Pracat". Od portreta kap. Lovro Sesan, pomorski privrednik Pasko Baburica (A. Popović, 1941.), Nikola Mihanović (1846.-1926.) i Federiko Glavić (dva portreta - autori Celestin Medović i Domenika (Dome) Suhor, te bista kipara P. Palavicinija). Velika vitrina prikazuje modele parobroda "Tomislav", "Dubrovnik", mehanički brzinomjer, higrometar, brodsku parnu sirenu, pribor za jelo I unutrašnjost prostorija na parobrodu, te pehar s putničkog broda "Kraljica Marija"). Godine 1901. izgrađena je uskotračna željeznička veza Gruža sa zaleđem, koja je doprinjela povećanju pomorskog prometa i gradnji gruške luke (uvećane fotografije i sl.). Tu su neki preslici (na drvu) brodova vlasništva, između ostalih, "Slobodne plovidbe Ivo Račić" (parobrodi "Ivo Račić", "Izvor", "Korana", "Izgled", "Marija Račić", "Izrada"), te velikih putničkih brodova "Kraljica Marija" i "Princeza Olga". Nadalje, tu je polumodel parobroda "Petka". Tako je razdoblje između dva svjetska rata predstavljeno (polu)modelima najznačajnijih teretnih i putničkih parobroda, fotografijama brodova, portretima pomoraca, brodskim instrumentima, izlošcima iz opreme luksuznih putničkih parobroda "Dubrovačke plovidbe" (ex-"Dubrovačka parobrodarska plovidba", koja se tako nazivlje od 1838. godine, najavljujući time nabavku motornih brodova). Slijedi popis parobroda "Dubrovačke plovidbe" (ex-"Dubrovačke parobrodarske plovidbe") od osnutka 1892. do kraja II. svjetskog rata, te popis parobroda dubrovačke trgovačke mornarice stradalih u II. svjetskom ratu. U Dubrovniku je 1955. godine osnovana Atlantska plovidba za prekooceansku trgovačku plovidbu, započevši rad sa 7 brodova duge plovidbe (neki od ex-"Dubrovačke plovidbe"). Tu su i uvećane fotografije nekih motornih brodova Atlantske plovidbe ("Petka", "Livno", "Cavtat", "Baranja", "Naprijed", "Gundulić", "Kučište", "Kutina", "Plitvice", "Baranja", "Ruđer Bošković", te noviji "Oluja", "Sveti Nikola I", "Sveti Vlaho", "Pelješac" i "City of Dubrovnik"), a sve je popraćeno tabličnim i statističkim podacima o pojedinim brodovima dotične plovidbe. Izložba završava fotografijama Pava Urbana (1968.-1991.) i Mira Kernera (1942.-1993.), koje prikazuju bombardiranje Dubrovnika 1991. godine, nedjelo četničke armade.

I kao što je započelo razgledanje muzeja topovima (koji se nalaze ispred Pomorskog muzeja) i kormilom, tako i završava, sidrom i brodskim pozicijskim svjetlima koji govore o vječnoj nadi, težnji pomoraca za plovidbom i usidrenjem u mirnoj luci, a i nadi i želji da ovakav muzej bude upravo ta pozicija kojoj se posjetom izražava spona s postojanom vječnošću.


 

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